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Music in the Bible

 How Should God be Worshiped?

“Shout joyfully to the Lord, all the earth; Break forth in song, rejoice, and sing praises.” (Psalm 98:4)

The act of worshiping God is defined as:

The act of paying divine honors to the Supreme Being; religious reverence and homage; adoration, or acts of reverence, with supreme respect and veneration; to perform religious exercises in honor of; to adore; to venerate God.

To worship is to formally praise, honor, and declare one’s devotion to the supreme God; the Creator, Governor and Sustainer of all that has been created. Typical acts of worship include: singing hymns or psalms, preaching, praying, giving, and the Lord’s Supper.

Here we are concentrating in the worship aspect of music and singing and paying paying particular attention to check out if Drums are proper instruments as an aid to producing a pleasant sound to the Lord.

The musical instruments that are approved by the Bible to produce joyful noise to the Lord are clearly stated: ” Praise ye the LORD. Praise God in his sanctuary: praise him in the firmament of his power. 2 Praise him for his mighty acts: praise him according to his excellent greatness. 3 Praise him with the sound of the trumpet: praise him with the psaltery and harp. 4 Praise him with the timbrel and dance: praise him with stringed instruments and organs. 5 Praise him upon the loud cymbals: praise him upon the high sounding cymbals. 6 Let every thing that hath breath praise the LORD. Praise ye the LORD.” (Psalm 150:1-6)

  • Firstly, the words must be true to the Bible.
  • Secondly, the music must not sound like or remind people of the world.
  • Thirdly, the music must honor and glorify our Lord Jesus Christ, who is the Name above every name!
  • Fourthly, the musicians must be so dedicated to the Lord that they will do everything possible, including dress and music style, not to attract attention to themselves or the world but to magnify our Lord Jesus! Amen!

People, are converted by God through the preaching of the Gospel of Christ and Him crucified, NOT by wild worldly music, indeed: “And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel?” (2Co 6:15)

Now, many will misquote: LOUD NOISE
In the KJV we read in Psalm 98:4 make a loud noise and modern people have taken “noise” to mean “huge free-for-all with anything you got”. Other translations instead of “loud noise ” have “break forth” which in the context with the verse means “explode” with SINGING of joy and praises for the Lord, there is no hinting to instruments but to human voice. The KJV is not wrong, only the word “noise” is taken by modernists to mean something else than intended. It definitely means to sing with all the voice one’s got, and not “sottovoce”, but surely with intelligence and not with the mesmerizing confusing ruckus of powerful drums.

In recent years there has been such a powerful and fast shift toward loud music that has become entertainment completely abandoning the holy concept of music as accompaniment of instruments joined to the voices of the singing worshipers. But this thinking is changing and many are now saying that music as Christian entertainment (?) is right. Many apostate “churches” pull their biggest crowds with musical entertainment that looks like a rock concert. Of course, the next step is any kind of cross-over entertainment is OK as long as its flavored with a few bible verses and some carnal commentary from the cool, hip “pastor”. Hymnology, the singing of hymns in the church, was not introduced into the church until A.D. 350 by an early church theologian, by the name of Ambrose of Milan. Before that time singing played very little or no part in the church worship services. We have come a long way!

 2 Corinthians 6:15 And what accord has Christ with Belial? Or what part has a believer with an unbeliever?


Extracts from Bible Guidelines for Music with many secular quotes; (by Terry Watkins)

The Bible lists many kinds of instruments (Psalms 150:3-5), yet one instrument is NEVER mentioned! The drum was a very common instrument in Egypt and the lands around Israel. Did the Lord just forget to include the DRUM or is there another reason? Is it because drums are associated with voodoo, shamanism, paganism and magic rituals?

Drums are “played to summon up magic powers” (The Illustrated Book of Signs & Symbols)… and are “used in shamanic rituals to heal people. It is believed that the shaman can communicate with the spirit world THROUGH DRUMMING.” (Musical Instruments). “Pagan dances and rituals are always accompanied by the incessant BEAT of DRUMS.” (Satan’s Music Exposed)

Robert Palmer, contributing editor to Rolling Stone… advocate and lover of rock music, writes, in Rock & Roll An Unruly History: “Bata drums [drums used in voodoo], sacred to the Yoruba people of Nigeria and Cuba… provided a template for the inner rhythms of rock and roll… serve as conduits for spiritual energies, linking individual human consciousness with the gods… the drum rhythms that make rock and roll can ultimately be traced back to African music of a primarily spiritual or ritual nature. In a sense, rock and roll is a kind of ‘voodoo’… Drums are used in “voodoo” possession… drummers tap out their rhythm patterns like signals to the realm of the gods, inviting and enticing them to come and POSSESS their devotees.”

Little Richard, the self-professed “architect of rock ‘n roll”, readily admits Satan’s control and influence in his life and rock music: “My true belief about Rock ‘n’ Roll – is this: “I believe this kind of music is demonic…. A lot of the BEATS in music today are taken from voodoo, from the voodoo DRUMS.” (The Life and Times of Little Richard)

“The shaman was the original ‘long hair’, the first rock star draped in leather, dancing possessed to a rhythm banged out on a DRUM… communication with the gods was synonymous with DRUMS… the body can become the conduit for a deity… DRUMS are the catalyst for the whole process… what Westerners simplistically call ‘possession’.” (Appetite for Destruction)

David Tame writes in The Secret Power of Music: “Today’s DRUMMER differs but little from the shaman in his incessant beating out of a rhythm, and likewise often enters into a form of trance while performing.”

The DRUM has always been associated with paganism and the devil… When the first blacks from Africa were converted to Christianity they knew the power and evil influence of DRUMS. And the converted blacks strictly forbid the use of drums! They referred to the drums as “the Devil’s drum”. (Hole in Our Soul: The Loss of Beauty and Meaning in American Popular Music).

It really does look like that the one simple guideline for Christian music is: NO DRUMS!

Reference to sing only is far more present than also with instruments. There is no reference to actual drums although Timbrels can be likened to hand held mini-drums usually played by women. Among the groups of instruments, the most primitive is undoubtedly the percussion instruments. It is interesting to note that the first two instruments that the Bible mentions are not percussion instruments, but examples of harp and pipe. (Gen 4:21) Perhaps the reason that underlies this situation is the ambiguous nature of percussive instruments. While the stringed instruments and the wind instruments are meant specifically for making music, percussive instruments often blur the line between religious function, music and dance.

Trumpet – Shofar:
While leading the Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt, Moses ordered his metal smiths to fashion two long silver trumpets that could perform a variety of uses; signalling, summoning assemblies, sounding the alarm, and initiating celebrations (Numbers 10:1-10).

Psaltry and harp or Kinnor.
plucked string instrument translated variously as harp, lyre, or cythara, and mentioned on a number of occasions. The frame was made of wood, occasionally trimmed with amber, and the strings made either of twisted grass or sheep gut. This was the instrument the Israelites hung on the willows by the rivers of Babylon during the Second Exile. Evidently there were a number of types, some quite elaborate, for one Psalm mentions in a single verse the harp, the psaltery, and “an instrument of ten strings” (Psalms 137:2, Psalms 33:2).

Organ – Pipe
A simple shepherd’s instrument, probably single-reed and apparently widely used. “The people piped with pipes” when King Solomon was anointed by Zadok the Priest (Kings 1:40).

The organ was the other instrument mentioned in Genesis 4:21. This instrument is not mentioned in the list of the musical instruments used in the temple and was not an organ, but rather a shepherd’s pipe or flute. The only reference to it in: Job 21:12; 30:31 and in Psalm 150:4.

Timbrel, or Tabret.
A hand held mini-drum that resembled a tambourine. The tambourine consists of a wood or metal shell ranging from two to three inches in depth and seven to twelve inches in diameter. Tambourines usually have one or two rows of jingles, and sometimes small bells, mounted in pairs in the shell. The primary sound from the instrument comes from the jingles, not the head, although the technique of drumming on the head can be used to great effect. Moses’ sister Miriam played one to celebrate the crossing of the Red Sea (Exodus 15:20), also Psalm 81:2; 149:3; Judges 11:34; 1Sa 18:6. It was a percussion instrument but was carried by women so it was small in size, nothing like the huge modern band drums and its sound would have been not ear deafening.

Stringed Instruments
The two stringed instruments that the Bible mentions are the kinnor and the nebel.

The nebel was a bulky, but mobile, instrument that was very similar to a harp. There were probably several variations in the nebel, especially in regards to the number of strings on the instrument. The nebel had anywhere from four to ten strings, which is seen in the headings of a few of the Psalms.

The kinnor is conspicuous among the instruments, not only because it was one of the first two instruments that Jubal contrived, but also because the kinnor was the instrument of King David. The kinnor is similar to the lyre, while the nebel bears a closer resemblance to a harp. The kinnor, is exclusively associated with joyful occasions.

Cymbals are thin metal plates that are usually played in pairs and produce sound when struck together. When they are grated one against the other, cymbals produce a pleasing metallic rumble. The technique used when a single cymbal is called for is produced by striking it with a drumstick, or “rolling” with a soft mallet, usually felt-tipped. The only permanent percussive instrument in the temple orchestra was the cymbal. In the Holy Scriptures, the use of cymbals is solely confined to religious ceremonies. The “loud cymbals” were of a larger diameter than the “high (pitch) sounding,” and were two-handed cymbals. The high sounding cymbals were much smaller and played by one hand, the cymbals being attached to the thumb and the middle finger respectively.

A summary of singing and use of musical instruments in Psalms is tabulated below:

Sing Only

Psa 7:17Psa 33:2Psa 33:2Psa 68:25Psa 47:5Psa 150:5ZERO
Psa 9:2Psa 43:4Psa 57:8Psa 81:2Psa 81:3
Psa 9:11Psa 49:4Psa 68:25Psa 98:6Psa 98:6
Psa 13:6Psa 57:8Psa 71:22Psa 149:3Psa 150:3
Psa 18:49Psa 71:22Psa 78:70Psa 150:4
Psa 21:13Psa 81:2Psa 81:2
Psa 27:6Psa 92:3Psa 87:7
Psa 30:4Psa 98:5Psa 89:19
Psa 30:12Psa 108:2Psa 92:3
Psa 51:14Psa 137:2Psa 108:2
Psa 59:16Psa 147:7Psa 144:9
Psa 59:17Psa 149:3Psa 150:3
Psa 61:8Psa 150:3
Psa 65:13
Psa 66:2
Psa 66:4
Psa 67:4
Psa 68:4
Psa 68:32
Psa 75:9
Psa 92:1
Psa 95:1
Psa 96:1
Psa 101:1
Psa 104:12
Psa 104:33
Psa 105:2
Psa 106:12
Psa 135:3
Psa 138:1
Psa 138:5
Psa 145:7
Psa 146:2


  1. Singing is part of the worship requested and due to God the Almighty and HIM alone, but it is not all there is to worship. The acts of worship that are specified by God are: singing, preaching, praying, giving, and the Lord’s Supper (Colossians 3:16; 1 Timothy 2:1-2; Acts 20:7; 2 Timothy 4:2; 1 Corinthians 16:1-2). Worship must promote awe and reverence, spirituality and thoughtfulness. Joy must flow from the heart, and not be worked up by the excessive use of external helps.

  2. God has given the human voice as the primary source of expressing singing worship, however He will accept also some musical instruments to aid the voice in its expression. There is no evidence that there are many musical instruments in heaven, yet there is music: “And I heard a voice from heaven, like the voice of many waters, and like the voice of loud thunder. And I heard the sound of harpists playing their harps.” (Revelation 14:2)

  3. Scripture list those instruments that may be used, some instruments are never mentioned, such as the Drum, and it is best not to use them in our worship. The general rule is that all instruments are only an aid to the voice, not a supplanter or an overwhelmer thereof. The voice must be heard clearly over the instruments in its purity, musical instruments that are confusing and distorting must not be used.

  4. Drums, although in wide use and well known in all history were never used to worship God because drums have always been associated with voodoo, shamanism, paganism and magic rituals, the church of Christ has no part with that.

  5. Singing worship can be loud and we must sing with all our hearts to the Lord giving all that we got, but the voice is supreme in worship and the instruments are just an aid and we are singing to the Lord not to ourselves. Worship is not for human exhibitionism—God resists the proud. It is not to show off or to admire human artistic ability. Musical aids must never be allowed to turn worship into entertainment. They must never interfere with the spiritual character of worship.

  6. The standard of God remains—that musical instruments should be modest in character, limited in number, and that they should never be allowed to overwhelm the intelligent and sincere offering of worship voiced from the minds and hearts of believers.

  7. The worship of the church of Christ is plainly given in the New Testament. Jesus said: “God is a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth” (John 4:24). The day Christians communally worship God is Sunday, the first day of the week, the “Lord’s Day” (Acts 20:7; 1 Corinthians 16:2; Revelation 1:10). The music of the church of Christ is singing. This is the only kind of music that is mentioned in the NT by God in His word for the worship of His church (Colossians 3:16; Ephesians 5:19). Singing is commanded of all Christians, not just a favored few. Choirs, quartets, solos, and choral groups are not mentioned in the New Testament nor are instruments of music resembling pianos, organs, drums, guitars, etc. mentioned in the New Testament either.

Charles Spurgeon stated eloquently below ( I am not a Baptist and do not agree with him on some doctrine but he hits the nail on the head here) :

“Praise the Lord with the harp. Israel was at school, and used childish things to help her to learn; but in these days when Jesus gives us spiritual food, one can make melody without strings and pipes. We do not need them. They would hinder rather than help our praise. Sing unto him. This is the sweetest and best music. No instrument like the human voice.” (Commentary on Psalms 42:4) “David appears to have had a peculiarly tender remembrance of the singing of the pilgrims, and assuredly it is the most delightful part of worship and that which comes nearest to the adoration of heaven. What a degradation to supplant the intelligent song of the whole congregation by the theatrical prettiness of a quartet, bellows, and pipes! We might as well pray by machinery as praise by it.” (Spurgeon preached to 20,000 people every Sunday for 20 years in the Metropolitan Baptist Tabernacle and never were mechanical instruments of music used in his services. When asked why, he quoted 1st Corinthians 14:15. “I will pray with the spirit and I will pray with the understanding also; I will sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also.” He then declared: “I would as soon pray to God with machinery as to sing to God with machinery.” (Charles H. Spurgeon)

What did early Christians believe about using instrumental music in worship???? (Before 300 AD)

Uninspired records of how early Christians worshiped and what doctrine they believed!

AQUINAS “Our church does not use musical instruments, as harps and psalteries, to praise God withal, that she may not seem to Judaize.” (Thomas Aquinas, Bingham’s Antiquities, Vol. 3, page 137)

AUGUSTINE “musical instruments were not used. The pipe, tabret, and harp here associate so intimately with the sensual heathen cults, as well as with the wild revelries and shameless performances of the degenerate theater and circus, it is easy to understand the prejudices against their use in the worship.” (Augustine 354 A.D., describing the singing at Alexandria under Athanasius)

CHRYSOSTOM “David formerly sang songs, also today we sing hymns. He had a lyre with lifeless strings, the church has a lyre with living strings. Our tongues are the strings of the lyre with a different tone indeed but much more in accordance with piety. Here there is no need for the cithara, or for stretched strings, or for the plectrum, or for art, or for any instrument; but, if you like, you may yourself become a cithara, mortifying the members of the flesh and making a full harmony of mind and body. For when the flesh no longer lusts against the Spirit, but has submitted to its orders and has been led at length into the best and most admirable path, then will you create a spiritual melody.” (Chrysostom, 347-407, Exposition of Psalms 41, (381-398 A.D.) Source Readings in Music History, ed. O. Strunk, W. W. Norton and Co.: New York, 1950, pg. 70.)

CLEMENT “Leave the pipe to the shepherd, the flute to the men who are in fear of gods and intent on their idol worshipping. Such musical instruments must be excluded from our wingless feasts, for they arc more suited for beasts and for the class of men that is least capable of reason than for men. The Spirit, to purify the divine liturgy from any such unrestrained revelry chants: ‘Praise Him with sound of trumpet,” for, in fact, at the sound of the trumpet the dead will rise again; praise Him with harp,’ for the tongue is a harp of the Lord; ‘and with the lute. praise Him.’ understanding the mouth as a lute moved by the Spirit as the lute is by the plectrum; ‘praise Him with timbal and choir,’ that is, the Church awaiting the resurrection of the body in the flesh which is its echo; ‘praise Him with strings and organ,’ calling our bodies an organ and its sinews strings, for front them the body derives its Coordinated movement, and when touched by the Spirit, gives forth human sounds; ‘praise Him on high-sounding cymbals,’ which mean the tongue of the mouth which with the movement of the lips, produces words. Then to all mankind He calls out, ‘Let every spirit praise the Lord,’ because He rules over every spirit He has made. In reality, man is an instrument arc for peace, but these other things, if anyone concerns himself overmuch with them, become instruments of conflict, for inflame the passions. The Etruscans, for example, use the trumpet for war; the Arcadians, the horn; the Sicels, the flute; the Cretans, the lyre; the Lacedemonians, the pipe; the Thracians, the bugle; the Egyptians, the drum; and the Arabs, the cymbal. But as for us, we make use of one instrument alone: only the Word of peace by whom we a homage to God, no longer with ancient harp or trumpet or drum or flute which those trained for war employ.” (Clement of Alexandria, 190AD The instructor, Fathers of the church, p. 130)

CLEMENT “Moreover, King David the harpist, whom we mentioned just above, urged us toward the truth and away from idols. So far was he from singing the praises of daemons that they were put to flight by him with the true music; and when Saul was Possessed, David healed him merely by playing the harp. The Lord fashioned man a beautiful, breathing instrument, after His own imaged and assuredly He Himself is an all-harmonious instrument of God, melodious and holy, the wisdom that is above this world, the heavenly Word.” … “He who sprang from David and yet was before him, the Word of God, scorned those lifeless instruments of lyre and cithara. By the power of the Holy Spirit He arranged in harmonious order this great world, yes, and the little world of man too, body and soul together; and on this many-voiced instruments of the universe He makes music to God, and sings to the human instrument. “For thou art my harp and my pipe and my temple”(Clement of Alexandria, 185AD, Readings p. 62)

ERASMUS “We have brought into our churches certain operatic and theatrical music; such a confused, disorderly chattering of some words as I hardly think was ever in any of the Grecian or Roman theatres. The church rings with the noise of trumpets, pipes, and dulcimers; and human voices strive to bear their part with them. Men run to church as to a theatre, to have their ears tickled. And for this end organ makers are hired with great salaries, and a company of boys, who waste all their time learning these whining tones.” (Erasmus, Commentary on I Cor. 14:19)

EUSEBIUS “Of old at the time those of the circumcision were worshipping with symbols and types it was not inappropriate to send up hymns to God with the psalterion and cithara and to do this on Sabbath days… We render our hymn with a living psalterion and a living cithara with spiritual songs. The unison voices of Christians would be more acceptable to God than any musical instrument. Accordingly in all the churches of God, united in soul and attitude, with one mind and in agreement of faith and piety we send up a unison melody in the words of the Psalms.” (commentary on Psalms 91:2-3)

ALZOG “St. Ambrose and St. Gregory rendered great service to church music by the introduction of what are known as the Ambrosian and Gregorian chants…. Ecclesiastical chant, departing in some instances from the simple majesty of its original character, became more artistic, and, on this account, less heavenly and more profane; and the Fathers of the Church were not slow to censure this corruption of the old and honored church song. Finally, the organ, which seemed an earthly echo of the angelic choirs in heaven, added its full, rich, and inspiring notes to the beautiful simplicity of the Gregorian chant” (Alzog, Catholic Scholar, Church Historian of the University of Freiburg and champion of instrumental music in worship, was faithful to his scholarship when he wrote, Universal Church History, Vol. 1, pp. 696, 697).

ANGLICAN: the only protestant church to use instrumental music before 1750 AD: When the Reformation came to England, the Anglican church came within one vote (58-59) of abolishing instrumental music in 1562. Thus the church of England was at one time on the verge of excluding instrumental music from the worship, the practice being retained by a single vote. Having come directly from the Roman Catholic church who had long used instrumental music, it is easy to see why the Anglican church continued the practice: “XI. THE ENGLISH CONVOCATION, an ecclesiastical body in the church of England composed of bishops and clergy with Upper and Lower houses, is an important witness in the case:”In the beginning of the year 1562,” says Hetherington, “a meeting of the Convocation was held, in which the subject of further reformation was vigorously discussed on both sides. [Here is one alteration that was proposed] That the use of organs be laid aside. When the vote came to be taken, on these propositions, forty-three voted for them and thirty-five against; but when the proxies were counted, the balance was turned, the final state of the vote being fifty-eight for and fifty-nine against. Thus, it was determined by a single vote, and that the proxy of an absent person who did not hear the reasoning that the Prayer-Book should remain unimproved, that there should he no further reformation, that there should be no relief granted to those whose consciences felt aggrieved by the admixture of human inventions in the worship of God.” Hetherington’s Hist. Westmin. Assem. of Divines, p.30.

AMERICAN “Pope Vitalian is related to have first introduced organs into some of the churches of Western Europe about 670 but the earliest trustworthy account is that of one sent as a present by the Greek emperor Constantine Copronymus to Pepin, king of Franks in 755” (American Encyclopedia, Volume 12, p. 688).

BARCLAY “If God is spirit a man’s gifts to God music gifts of the spirit. Animal sacrifices and all manmade things become inadequate. The only gifts that befit the nature of God are the gifts of the spirit – love, loyalty, obedience, devotion” (W. Barclay, The Gospel of John, Vol. 1, p. 161).

BARNES “Psallo … is used, in the New Testament, only in Rom. 15:9 and 1 Cor. 14:15, where it is translated sing; in James 5:13, where it is rendered sing psalms, and in the place before us. The idea here is that of singing in the heart, or praising God from the heart” (Albert Barnes, a Presbyterian, Notes on The Testament, comment on Eph. 5:19).

BENEDICT “In my earliest intercourse among this people, congregational singing generally prevailed among them. . . . The Introduction Of The Organ Among The Baptist. This instrument, which from time immemorial has been associated with cathedral pomp and prelatical power, and has always been the peculiar favorite of great national churches, at length found its way into Baptist sanctuaries, and the first one ever employed by the denomination in this country, and probably in any other, might have been standing in the singing gallery of the Old Baptist meeting house in Pawtucket, about forty years ago, where I then officiated as pastor (1840) … Staunch old Baptists in former times would as soon tolerated the Pope of Rome in their pulpits as an organ in their galleries, and yet the instrument has gradually found its way among them…. How far this modern organ fever will extend among our people, and whether it will on the whole work a RE- formation or DE- formation in their singing service, time will more fully develop.” (Benedict, Baptist historian, Fifty Years Among Baptist, page 204-207)

BEZA “If the apostle justly prohibits the use of unknown tongues in the church, much less would he have tolerated these artificial musical performances which are addressed to the ear alone, and seldom strike the understanding even of the performers themselves.” (Theodore Beza, scholar of Geneva, Girardeau’s Instrumental Music, p. 166)

BINGHAM “Music in churches is as ancient as the apostles, but instrumental music not so . . . The use of the instrumental, indeed, is much ancienter, but not in church service. . . In the Western parts, the instrument, as not so much as known till the eighth century; for the first organ that was ever seen in France was one sent as a present to King Pepin by Constantinus Copronymus, the Greek emperor. . . . But, now, it was only, used in princes courts, and not yet brought into churches; nor was it ever received into the Greek churches, there being no mention of an organ in all their liturgies ancient or modern.” (Joseph Bingham, Works, London Edition. Vol. 11, p. 482-484)

BINGHAM “Music in churches is as ancient as the apostles, but instrumental music not so.” (Joseph Bingham, Church of England, Works, vol. 3, page 137)

BURNEY “After the most diligent inquire concerning the time when instrumental music had admission into the ecclesiastical service, there is reason to conclude, that, before the reign of Constantine, ;is the converts to the Christian religion were subject to frequent persecution and disturbance in their devotion, the rise of instruments could hardly have been allowed: and by all that can be collected from the writings of the primitive Christians, they seem never to have been admitted.” (Charles Burney, A general history of Music, 1957, p. 426)

CHAMBERS “The organ is said to have been first introduced into church music by Pop Vitalian in 666. In 757, a great organ was sent as a present to Pepin by the Byzantine Emperor, Constantine, and placed in the church St. Corneille as Compiegne.” (Chambers Encyclopedia, Vol 7, p. 112)

CLARKE “But were it even evident, which it is not, either from this or any other place in the sacred writings, that instruments of music were prescribed by divine authority under the law, could this be adduced with any semblance of reason, that they ought to be used in Christian worship? No; the whole spirit, soul, and genius of the Christian religion are against this; and those who know the Church of God best, and what constitutes its genuine spiritual state, know that these things have been introduced as a substitute for the life and power of religion; and that where they prevail most, there is least of the power of Christianity. Away with such portentous baubles from the worship of that infinite Spirit who requires His followers to worship Him in spirit and truth, for to no such worship are these instruments friendly.” (Adam Clarke (Methodist), Clarke’s Commentary, Methodist, Vol. II, pp. 690-691.)

CLARKE “I am an old man, and I here declare that I never knew them to be productive of any good in the worship of God, and have reason to believe that they are productive of much evil. Music as a science I esteem and admire, but instrumental music in the house of God I abominate and abhor. This is the abuse of music, and I here register my protest against all such corruption of the worship of the author of Christianity. The late and venerable and most eminent divine, the Rev. John Wesley, who was a lover of music, and an elegant poet, when asked his opinion of instruments of music being introduced into the chapels of the Methodists, said in his terse and powerful manner, ‘I have no objections to instruments of music in our chapels, provided they are neither heard nor seen.’ I say the same.” (Adam Clark, Methodist)

COLEMAN “The tendency of this (instrumental music) was to secularize the music of the church, and to encourage singing by a choir. Such musical accompaniments were gradually introduced; but they can hardly be assigned to a period earlier than the fifth and sixth centuries. Organs were unknown in church until the eighth or ninth centuries. Previous to this, they had their place in the theater, rather than in the church. they were never regarded with favor in the Eastern church, and were vehemently opposed in many places in the West.” (Lyman Coleman, a Presbyterian, Primitive Church, p. 376-377)

CONYBEARE “Throughout the whole passage there is a contrast implied between the Heathen and the Christian practice… When you meet, let your enjoyment consist not in fullness of wine, but fullness of the spirit; let your songs be, not the drinking songs of heathen feasts, but psalms and hymns; and their accompaniment, not the music of the lyre, but the melody of the heart; while you sing them to the praise, not of Bacchus or Venus, but of the Lord Jesus Christ” (Conybeare and Howson, Life and Times of the Apostle Paul, comment on Eph. 5:19).

DICKINSON “While the Greek and Roman songs were metrical, the Christian psalms were anitphons, prayers, responses, etc., were unmetrical; and while the pagan melodies were always sung to an instrumental accompaniment, the church chant was exclusively vocal” (Edward Dickinson, History of Music, p. 54)

DICKINSON “In view of the controversies over the use of instrumental music in worship, which have been so violent in the British and American Protestant churches, it is an interesting question whether instruments were employed by the primitive Christians. We know that instruments performed an important function in the Hebrew temple service and in the ceremonies of the Greeks. At this point, however, a break was made with all previous practice, and although the lyre and flute were sometimes employed by the Greek converts, as a general rule the use of instruments in worship was condemned.” … “Many of the fathers, speaking of religious songs, made no mention of instruments; others, like Clement of Alexandria and St. Chrysostom, refer to them only to denounce them. Clement says, “Only one instrument do we use, viz. the cord of peace wherewith we honor God, no longer the old psaltery, trumpet, drum, and flute.” Chrysostom exclaims: “David formerly sang in psalms, also we sing today with him; he had a lyre with lifeless strings, the church has a lyre with living strings. Our tongues are the strongs of the lyre, with a different tone, indeed, but with a more accordant piety.” St. Ambrose expresses his scorn for those who would play the lyre and psaltery instead of singing hymns and psalms; and St. Augustine adjures believers not to turn their hearts to theatrical instruments. The religious guides of the early Christian felt that there would be an incongruity, and even profanity, in the use of the sensuous nerve-exciting effects of instrumental sound in their mystical, spiritual worship. Their high religious and moral enthusiasm needed no aid from external strings; the pure vocal utterance as the more proper expression of their faith.” (Edward Dickinson, Music in the History of the Western Church, p. 54, 55)

FESSENDEN “This species. which is the most natural, is to be considered to have existed before any other… Instrumental music is also of very ancient date, its invention being ascribed to Tubal, the sixth descendant from Cain. The instrumental music was not practiced by the primitive Christians, but was an aid to devotion of later times, is evident from church history. (Fessenden’s Encyclopedia of Art and Music, p. 852)

FINNEY “The early Christians refused to have anything to do with the instrumental music which they might have inherited from the ancient world.” (Theodore Finney, A History of Music, 1947, p. 43)

FISHER “Church music, which at the outset consisted mainly of the singing of psalms, flourished especially in Syria and at Alexandria. The music was very simple in its character. There was some sort of alternate singing in the worship of Christians, as is described by Pliny. The introduction of antiphonal singing at Antioch is ascribed by tradition to Ignatius … The primitive church music was choral and congregational.” (George Park Fisher, Yale Professor, History of the Christian Church, p. 65, 121)

FULLER “The history of the church during the first three centuries affords many instances of primitive Christians engaging in singing, but no mention, (that I recollect) is made of instruments. (If my memory does not deceive me) it originated in the dark ages of popery, when almost every other superstition was introduced. At present, it is most used and where the least regard is paid to primitive simplicity.” (Andrew Fuller, Baptist, Complete works of Andre Fuller, Vol 3, P. 520, 1843)

GARRISON “There is no command in the New Testament, Greek or English, commanding the use of the instrument. Such a command would be entirely out of harmony with the New Testament.” (J.H. Garrison, Christian Church)

GIRADEAU “The church, although lapsing more and more into deflection from the truth and into a corrupting of apostolic practice, had not instrumental music for 1200 years (that is, it was not in general use before this time); The Calvinistic Reform Church ejected it from its service as an element of popery, even the church of England having come very nigh its extrusion from her worship. It is heresy in the sphere of worship.” (John Giradeau, Presbyterian professor in Columbia Theological Seminary, Instrumental Music, p. 179)

HASTING If instrumental music was not part of early Christian worship, when did it become acceptable? Several reference works will help us see the progression of this practice among churches: “Pope Vitalian introduced an organ in the church in the seventh century to aid the singing but it was opposed and was removed.” (James Hasting, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics.)

HUMPHREYS “One of the features which distinguishes the Christian religion from almost all others is its quietness; it aims to repress the outward signs of inward feeling. Savage instinct, and the religion of Greece also, had employed the rhythmic dance and all kinds of gesticulatory notions to express the inner feelings . . . The early Chrisitians discouraged all outward signs of excitement, and from the very beginning, in the music they used, reproduced the spirit of their religion-an inward quietude. All the music employed in their early services was vocal.” (Frank Landon Humphreys, Evolution of Church Music, p. 42)

KILLEN “It is not, therefore, strange that instrumental music was not, heard in their congregational services….. In the early church the whole congregation joined in the singing, but instrumental music did not accompany the praise” (W. D. Killen, The Ancient Church, pp. 193, 423).

KNOX “a kist (chest) of whistles.” (John Knox, Presbyterian, in reference to the organ)

KURTZ “At first the church music was simple, artless, recitative. But rivalry of heretics forced the orthodox church to pay greater attention to the requirements of art. Chrysostom had to declaim against the secularization of church music. More lasting was the opposition to the introduction of instrumental music.” (John Kurtz, Lutheran Scholar, Church History, Vol 1, p. 376)

LANG “All our sources deal amply with vocal music of the church, but they are chary with mention of any other manifestations of musical art . . . The development of Western music was decisively influenced by the exclusion of musical instruments from the early Christian Church.” (Paul Henry Lang, Music in Western Civilization, p. 53-54)

LEICHTENTRITT “The Biblical precept to “sing” the psalms, not merely recite, them, was obeyed literally, as is testified by many statements in the writings of the saints. Pope Leo I, who lived about 450, expressly related that “the Psalms of David arc piously sung everywhere in the Church.” Only singing however, and no playing of instruments, was permitted in the early Christian Church. In this respect the Jewish tradition was not continued. In the earlier Jewish temple service many instruments mentioned in-the Bible had been used. But instrumental music had been thoroughly discredited in the meantime by the lascivious Greek and Roman virtuoso music of the later ages, and it appeared unfit for the divine service. The aulos was held in especial abhorrence, whereas some indulgence was granted to the lyre and cithara, permitted by some saints at least for private worship, though not in church services. It is interesting to note that the later Jewish temple service has conformed to the early Christian practice and, contrary to Biblical tradition, has banned all instruments. Orthodox Jewish synagogues now object even to the use of the organ. (Hugo Leichtentritt, Music, History and Ideas, Howard University Press: Cambridge, 1958, p 34)

LONDON (London Encyclopedia says the organ is said to have been first introduced into church music in about 658AD.)

LORENZ “Yet there was little temptation to undue elaboration of hymnody or music. The very spirituality of the new faith made ritual or liturgy superfluous and music almost unnecessary. Singing (there was no instrumental accompaniment) was little more than a means of expressing in a practicable, social way, the common faith and experience. . . . The music was purely vocal. There was no instrumental accompaniment of any kind. . . . It fell under the ban of the Christian church, as did all other instruments, because of its pagan association” (E. S. Lorenz, Church Music, pp. 217, 250, 404)

LUTHER “The organ in the worship Is the insignia of Baal… The Roman Catholic borrowed it from the Jews.” (Martin Luther, Mcclintock & Strong’s Encyclopedia Volume VI, page 762)

MCCLINTOCK “The general introduction of instrumental music can certainly not be assigned to a date earlier than the 5th and 6th centuries; yea, even Gregory the Great, who towards the end of the 6th century added greatly to the existing church music, absolutely prohibited the use of instruments. Several centuries later the introduction of the organ in sacred service gave the place to instruments as accompaniments for Christian song, and from that time to this they have been freely used with few exceptions. The first organ is believed to have been used in the Church service in the 13th century. Organs were however, in use before this in the theater. They were never regarded with favor in the Eastern Church, and were vehemently opposed in some of the Western churches.” (McClintock and Strong, Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature, Vol 6, p. 759)

MCCLINTOCK Sir John Hawkins, following the Romanish writers in his erudite work on the history of music, made Pope Vitalian, in A.D. 660, the first who introduced organs into the churches. But students of ecclesiastical archaeology are generally agreed that instrumental music was not used in churches till a much later date; for Thomas Aquinas [Catholic Scholar in 1250 A.D.] has these remarkable words, ‘Our church does not use musical instruments, as harps and psalteries, to praise God withal, that she may seem not to Judaize.'” (McClintock and Strong, Encyclopedia of Biblical Literature, Vol. 6, Harper and Brothers, New York, 1894, pg. 762.)

MCCLINTOCK “The Greek word ‘psallo’ is applied among the Greeks of modern times exclusively to sacred music, which in the Eastern Church has never been any other than vocal, instrumental music being unknown in that church, as it was in the primitive church.” (McClintock & Strong, Vol. 8, p. 739).

NAUMAN “There can be no doubt that originally the music of the divine service was every where entirely of a vocal nature.” (Emil Nauman, The History of Music. Vol. I, p. 177)

NEITHENINGTON (Exclusion of instrumental music from the church of England passed by only one vote in 1562, according to Neithenington’s: History Of The Westminster Assembly Of Divines, p. 20)

NEWMAN “In 1699 the Baptists received an invitation from Thomas Clayton, rector of Christ Church, to unite with the Church of England. They replied in a dignified manner, declining to do so unless he could prove, “that the Church of Christ under the New Testament may consist or . . . a mixed multitude and their seed, even all the members of a nation, . . . whether they are godly or ungodly,” that “lords, archbishops, etc., . . . are of divine institution and appointment,” and that their vestments, liturgical services, use of mechanical instruments, infant baptism, sprinkling, “signing with the cross in baptism,” etc., are warranted by Scripture.” … “It may be interesting to note that this church (First Baptist Church of Newport, organized in 1644 cf. p. 88) was one of the first to introduce instrumental music. The instrument was a bass viol and caused considerable commotion. This occurred early in the nineteenth century.(Albert Henry Newman, A History of the Baptist Churches in the United States, American Baptist Publication Society 1915, p. 207, 255)

NICETA “It is time to turn to the New Testament to confirm what is said in the Old, and, particularly, to point out that the office of psalmody is not to be considered abolished merely because many other observances of the Old Law have fallen into disuse. Only the corporal institutions have been rejected, like circumcision, the Sabbath, sacrifices, discrimination of foods. So, too, the trumpets, harps, cymbals, and timbrels. For the sound of these we now have a better substitute in the music from the mouths of men. The daily ablutions, the new-moon observances, the careful inspection of leprosy are completely past and gone, along with whatever else was necessary only for a time – as it were, for children.” (Niceta, a bishop of Remesian or Yugoslavia)

PAHLEN “These chants – and the word chant (and not music) is used advisedly, for many centuries were to pass before instruments accompanied the sung melodies.” (Kurt Pahlen, Music of the World, p. 27)

PAPADOPOULOS “The execution of Byzantine church music by instruments, or even the accompaniment of sacred chanting by instruments, was ruled out by the Eastern Fathers as being incompatible with the pure, solemn, spiritual character of the religion of Christ. The Fathers of the church, in accordance with the example of psalmodizing of our Savior and the ho ly Apostles, established that only vocal music be used in the churches and severely forbade instrumental music as being secular and hedonic, and in general as evoking pleasure without spiritual value” (G. I. Papadopoulos, A Historical Survey of Byzantine Ecclesiastical Music (in Greek), Athens, 1904, pp. 10, II).

POSEY “For years the Baptists fought the introduction of instrumental music into the churches…Installation of the organ brought serious difficulties in many churches” (Wm. B. Posey, Baptist, The Baptist Church In The Lower Mississippi Valley).

PRESBYTERIAN “Question 6. Is there any authority for instrumental music in the worship of God under the present dispensation? Answer. Not the least, only the singing of psalms and hymns and spiritual songs was appointed by the apostles; not a syllable is said in the New Testament in favor of instrumental music nor was it ever introduced into the Church until after the eighth century, after the Catholics had corrupted the simplicity of the gospel by their carnal inventions. It was not allowed in the Synagogues, the parish churches of the Jews, but was confined to the Temple service and was abolished with the rites of that dispensation.” (Questions on the Confession of Faith and Form of Government of The Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, published by the Presbyterian Board of Publications, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1842, pg. 55.)

PRATT “The, First Christian Songs. – Singing in public and private worship was a matter of course for the early Christians. For Jewish converts this was a continuance of synagogue customs, but since the Church grew mostly among non-Jews, the technical forms employed were more Greek than Hebrew. The use of instruments was long resisted, because of their association with pagan sensuality.” (Waldo Selden Pratt, The History of Music, 1935, p. 64)

RIDDLE “In the first ages of the Christian church the psalms of David were always chanted or sung. In the Apostolic Constitutions (Book II, P. 57), we find it laid down an a rule that one of those officiating ministers should chant or sing psalms or David, and that the people should join by repeating the ends of the verses. The instruments of music were introduced into the Christians church in the ninth century. There were unknown alike to the early church and to all ancients. The large wind organ was known, however, long before it was introduced into the churches of the west. The first organ used in worship was one which was received by Charlemagne in France as a present from the Emperor Constantine.’ (J.E. Riddle, Christian Antiquities, p. 384)

RITTER “We have no real knowledge of the exact character of the music which formed a part of the religious devotion of the first Christian congregations. It was, however purely vocal.” (Frederic Louis Ritter, History of Music from the Christian Era to the Present Time, p. 28)

ROBERTSON “The word (psalleto) originally meant to play on a stringed instrument (Sir. 9:4), but it comes to be used also for singing with the voice and heart (Eph. 5:19; 1 Cor. 14:15), making melody with the heart also to the Lord” (A. T. Robertson, Baptist Greek scholar, Baptist Studies in the Nestle James, comment on James 5:13)

SCHAFF “The use of organs in churches is ascribed to Pope Vitalian (657-672). Constantine Copronymos sent an organ with other presents to King Pepin of France in 767. Charlemagne received one as a present from the Caliph Haroun al Rashid, and had it put up in the cathedral of Aixia-Chapelle… The attitude of the churches toward the organ varies. It shared, to some extent, the fate of images, except that it never was an object of worship… The Greek church disapproved the use of organs. The Latin church introduced it pretty generally, but not without the protest of eminent men, so that even in the Council of Trent a motion was made, though not carried, to prohibit the organ at least in the mass.” (Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, Vol. 4, pg. 439.)

SHAFF “The first organ certainly known to exist and be used in a church was put in the cathedral at Aix-la-chapel by the German emperor, Charlemange, who came to the throne in 768AD. It met with great opposition among the Romanists, especially among the monks, and that it made its was but slowly into common use. So great was the opposition even as late as the 16th century that it would have been abolished by the council of Trent but for the influence of the Emperor Ferdinand…. In the Greek church the organ never came into use… The Reform church discarded it; and though the church of Basel very early introduced it, it was in other places admitted only sparingly and after long hesitation.” (Shaff-Herzog Encyclopedia, Vol 2, p. 1702)

SCHAFF “It is questionable whether, as used in the New Testament, ‘psallo’ means more than to sing . . . The absence of instrumental music from the church for some centuries after the apostles and the sentiment regarding it which pervades the writing, the fathers are unaccountable, if in the apostolic church such music was used” (Schaff-Herzog, Vol. 3, p. 961).

SCHAFF “In the Greek church the organ never came into use. But after the 8th century it became more and more common in the Latin church; not without opposition from the side of the monks.” (Schaff-Herzogg Encyclopedia, Vol 10, p. 657-658)

SHAFF (new) “The custom of organ accompaniment did not become general among Protestants until the eighteenth century.” (The New Shaff-Herzogg Encyclopedia, 1953, Vol 10, p. 257)

SPURGEON “Praise the Lord with the harp. Israel was at school, and used childish things to help her to learn; but in these days when Jesus gives us spiritual food, one can make melody without strings and pipes. We do not need them. They would hinder rather than help our praise. Sing unto him. This is the sweetest and best music. No instrument like the human voice.” (Commentary on Psalms 42:4) “David appears to have had a peculiarly tender remembrance of the singing of the pilgrims, and assuredly it is the most delightful part of worship and that which comes nearest to the adoration of heaven. What a degradation to supplant the intelligent song of the whole congregation by the theatrical prettiness of a quartet, bellows, and pipes! We might as well pray by machinery as praise by it.” (Spurgeon preached to 20,000 people every Sunday for 20 years in the Metropolitan Baptist Tabernacle and never were mechanical instruments of music used in his services. When asked why, he quoted 1st Corinthians 14:15. “I will pray with the spirit and I will pray with the understanding also; I will sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also.” He then declared: “I would as soon pray to God with machinery as to sing to God with machinery.” (Charles H. Spurgeon, Baptist)

SPURGEON “David appears to have had a peculiarly tender remembrance of the singing of the pilgrims, and assuredly it is the most delightful part of worship and that which comes nearest to the adoration of heaven. What a degradation to supplant the intelligent song of the whole congregation by the theatrical prettiness of a quartet, bellows, and pipes. We might as well pray by machinery as praise by it…
‘Praise the Lord with harp.’ Israel was at school, and used childish things to help her to learn; but in these days when Jesus gives us spiritual food, one can make melody without strings and pipes… We do not need them. That would hinder rather than help our praise. Sing unto him. This is the sweetest and best music. No instrument is like the human voice.” (Charles Spurgeon (Baptist), Commentary on Psalm 42.)

TAPPER “Both sexes joined in singing, but instruments of every kind were prohibited for along time” (Thomas Tapper, Essentials of Music History, p. 34)

THEODORET “107. Question: If songs were invented by unbelievers to seduce men, but were allowed to those under the law on account of their childish state, why do those who have received the perfect teaching of grace in their churches still use songs, just like the children under the law? Answer: It is not simple singing that belongs to the childish state, but singing with lifeless instruments, with dancing, and with clappers. Hence the use of such instruments and the others that belong to the childish state is excluded from the singing in the churches, and simple singing is left.” (Theodoret, a bishop of Cyrhus in Syria, Questions and Answers for the Orthodox)

WELIESZ “So far as we can tell the music of the early Church was almost entirely vocal, Christian usage following in this particular the practice of the Synagogue, in part for the same reasons.” (New Oxford History of Music, Vol 1, Egon Weliesz, 1957, p. 30)

WESLEY ‘I have no objection to instruments of music in our worship, provided they are neither seen nor heard.” (John Wesley, founder of Methodism, quoted in Adam Clarke’s Commentary, Vol. 4, p. 685)

CAMPBELL “[Instrumental music in worship] was well adapted to churches founded on the Jewish pattern of things and practicing infant sprinkling. That all persons singing who have no spiritual discernment, taste or relish for spiritual meditation, consolations and sympathies of renewed hearts should call for such an aid is but natural. So to those who have no real devotion and spirituality in them, and whose animal nature flags under the opposition or the oppression of church service I think that instrumental music would… be an essential prerequisite to fire up their souls to even animal devotion. But I presume, that to all spiritually-minded Christians, such aid would be as a cow bell in a concert.” (Alexander Campbell, recorded in Robert Richardson’s biography, Memoirs of Alexander Campbell, Vol. 2., p366)

FRANKLIN “If any one had told us, 40 years ago, that we would live to see the day where those professing to be Christians who claim the Holy Scriptures as their only rule of faith and practice, those under the command, and who profess to appreciate the meaning of the command to ‘observe whatsoever I have commanded you’ would bring instruments of music into a worshipping assembly and use it there in worship, we should have repelled the idea as an idle dream. But this only shows how little we knew of what men would do; or how little we saw of the power of the adversary to subvert the purest principles, to deceive the hearts of the simple, to undermine the very foundation of all piety, and turn the very worship of God itself into an attraction for the people of the world and entertainment, or amusement.” (Benjamin Franklin, Gospel Preacher, Vol 2, p. 411, 419-429)

FRANKLIN “Instrumental music is permissible for a church under the following conditions: 1. When a church never had or has lost the Spirit of Christ. 2. If a church has a preacher who never had or has lost the Spirit of Christ, who has become a dry, prosing and lifeless preacher. 3. If a church only intends being a fashionable society, a mere place of amusements and secular entertainment and abandoning the idea of religion and worship. 4. If a church has within it a large number of dishonest and corrupt men. 5. If a church has given up all idea of trying to convert the world.” (Ben Franklin, editor of American Christian Review, 1860.)

LIPSCOMB “Neither he [Paul] nor any other apostle, nor the Lord Jesus, nor any of the disciples for five hundred years, used instruments. This too, in the face of the fact that the Jews had used instruments in the days of their prosperity and that the Greeks and heathen nations all used them in their worship. They were dropped out with such emphasis that they were not taken up till the middle of the Dark Ages, and came in as part of the order of the Roman Catholic Church. It seems there cannot be doubt but that the use of instrumental music in connection with the worship of God, whether used as a part of the worship or as an attraction accompaniment, is unauthorized by God and violates the oft-repeated prohibition to add nothing to, take nothing from, the commandments of the Lord. It destroys the difference between the clean and the unclean, the holy and unholy, counts the blood of the Son of God unclean, and tramples under foot the authority of the Son of God. They have not been authorized by God or sanctified with the blood of his Son.” (David Lipscomb, Queries and Answers by David Lipscomb p. 226-227, and Gospel Advocate, 1899, p. 376-377)

MCGARVEY “And if any man who is a preacher believes that the apostle teaches the use of instrumental music in the church by enjoining the singing of psalms, he is one of those smatters in Greek who can believe anything that he wishes to believe. When the wish is father to the thought, correct exegesis is like water on a duck’s back” (J. W. McGarvey, Biblical Criticism, p. 116).

MCGARVEY “We cannot, therefore, by any possibility, know that a certain element of worship is acceptable to God in the Christian dispensation, when the Scriptures which speak of that dispensation are silent in reference to it. To introduce any such element is unscriptural and presumptuous. It is will worship, if any such thing as will worship can exist. On this ground we condemn the burning of incense, the lighting of candles, the wearing of priestly robes, and the reading of printed prayers. On the same ground we condemn instrumental music.” (J.W. McGarvey, The Millennial Harbinger, 1864, pp. 511-513.)

MCGARVEY “It is manifest that we cannot adopt the practice with out abandoning the obvious and only ground On Which a restoration of Primitive Christianity can be accomplished, or on which the plea for it can be maintained. Such is my profound conviction, and consequently, the question with me is not one concerning the choice or rejection of an expedient, but the maintenance or abandonment of a fundamental and necessary principle.” (J. W. McGarvey, Apostolic Timer 1881, and What Shall We Do About the Organ? p. 4, 10)

MILLIGAN “The tendency of instrumental music is, t in , to divert the minds of many from the sentiment of the song to the mere sound of the organ, and in this way it often serves to promote formalism in Churches” (Robert Milligan, Scheme of Redemption, p. 386).

PINKERTON “So far as known to me, or I presume to you, I am the only ‘preacher’ in Kentucky of our brotherhood who has publicly advocated the propriety of employing instrumental music in some churches, and that the church of God in Midway is the only church that has yet made a decided effort to introduce it” (L. L. Pinkerton, American Christian Review, 1860, as quoted by Cecil Willis in W. W. Otey: Contender for the Faith).

STONE “We have just received an extraordinary account of about 30,000 Methodists in England, withdrawing from that church and connexion, because the Conference disapproved of the introduction of instrumental music to the churches. The full account shall appear in our next. To us, backwoods Americans, this conduct of those seceders appears be the extreme of folly, and it argues that they have a greater taste for music, than they have for religion. Editor.” (Barton Stone, Christian Messenger, vol. 3, No. 2, Dec. 1828, p. 48 in bound volume)

WEST “Apostasy in music among 19th century churches that had endeavored to restore New Testament authority in worship and work began, in the main, following the Civil War’ In 1868, Ben Franklin guessed that there were ten thousand congregations an not over fifty had used an instrument in worship.” (Earl West, Search for the Ancient Order, Vol. 2, pp. 80, 81)